Tag Archives: Estate Planning

I Can’t Say It Enough…

…good estate planning requires advice from more than one discipline.

I was talking this morning with a friend of mine who is an estate planner.  I haven’t known him for a long time, but I like his approach, and I think it differentiates him from other financial planners I’ve known, because he’s got a passion that you can’t really fake, and it is clearly about doing the right thing for the client.  In this case, it means that he spends a considerable amount of time helping clients protect what they already have before he talks to them about using the wealth they have to accumulate more to fund whatever their end goal is.

I’ve been doing this long enough to understand that not everyone is wealthy, but I think that most people want to build what wealth they have.  Sure, some people have come to see me about their estate planning because they have gotten the bad news from a doctor, and that distant inevitability is now an impending certainty.  A holistic approach is probably not foremost in their minds, but an awful lot of people I’ve represented have more wealth than they think they do, and when we sort that out as part of the process, it often requires consulting with other professionals.  Granted, if we’re doing the estate planning because someone has stage four cancer, then we aren’t likely to be talking with them about life insurance, but we might be talking with them about brokerage accounts, 401(k)s, individual retirement accounts, and their interests in closely-held corporations and LLCs, which means that we will be talking  about transfer-on-death or payable-on-death designations on accounts, and how those designations can impact their estates, which means that we will be talking with their financial planners.  We will be talking about potential tax consequences for various potential courses of action, which means that we will be talking with CPA’s and accountants.  And sometimes, I even end up talking to representatives of charities about gifts that clients want to make.  When I am doing this for the clients who know that they aren’t long for this world, I’m not just sad for the client’s approaching demise.  I’m sad for the opportunities that they lost by not acting sooner.  Sometimes, this is because of procrastination, and sometimes, it’s because people don’t understand that estate planning shouldn’t be a mass of disjointed pieces, but a comprehensive plan, focused on the goals they rate as most important, and executed with a series of coordinated steps which have been considered and mapped out with the assistance of a team of professionals who want to help them succeed.  Once I help clients to fully understand this approach, I don’t often end up having  conversations about cost, because they understand that compared to the return they can achieve, the cost is minimal.

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Filed under Pieces of the puzzle, Planning, Probates and Estates, The Practice

Commercial Leases: The Devil Really IS In the Details

I’ve often heard other lawyers talk about how lawyers have a sickness.  I’m not sure that I would characterize what makes attorneys different as a sickness, but I will admit that we often seem weird to non-lawyers, and that this weirdness manifests itself in mundane ways.  My most obvious manifestation involves commercial leases.  How so?  Because I actually enjoy reading through them.  In fact, I’ve admitted publicly that being handed a commercial lease to review is like “Where’s Waldo?” for me.  I get out a pencil and my notepad, and I go to work.

Being a “country lawyer”, I don’t get to review the super-complicated, hundred-page plus leases that some attorneys get to build their careers around, but it isn’t unusual for me to be handed a commercial lease which is 30 to 50 pages long, and I have drafted some of similar length for clients.  The key is understanding that it really does take that many pages to include the “boilerplate” that you should expect in every commercial lease.  The problem is that I often discover that everyone takes the boilerplate for granted, and no one bothers to read through it carefully and determine if it makes sense for the individual tenant.  Hazardous materials clauses are a staple of commercial leases, and with good reason.  Environmental cleanup costs are very expensive, many owners policies limit the  but too often, landlords fail to think through the effect of whatever language is in their boilerplate, and the clients either don’t read carefully enough to know if they have a problem.  Many clauses broadly define “hazardous materials”, and if the lease does not narrow the definition, or make exceptions for materials commonly used by certain businesses, then a landlord may put a tenant in a position where the tenant is in violation of the lease from the moment they commence operations.  Perhaps the most obvious example came when I was asked to review a lease for a nail salon.  The hazardous materials clause was broadly written, and the tenant was shocked when I informed them that since they use acetone, they would technically be violating the lease.  In that case, the landlord was just as shocked as the tenant, and was willing to include an exception for acetone, and some other products that the salon used.  This is why patience in reviewing, along with careful note taking can help a tenant avoid nasty surprises like this which may be lurking in plain sight.

I also spend a fair amount of time with commercial leases looking at issues regarding Certificates of Estoppel.  Put simply, a Certificate of Estoppel is a certification by the tenant to a third party of certain facts regarding the lease.  The facts usually involve the length of the lease, whether or not either party is in default, the amount of the rent, or whether the tenant is currently insured as is required by the lease.  It is a subject that should not be an issue, but it frequently is, because landlords, or their banks will often ask tenants to certify things which aren’t true, or do not comport with the lease, which would have the effect of rewriting the lease moving forward, and maybe eliminating any remedy for violations or duties owed by the landlord which the tenant would otherwise be entitled to demand.  Another common error with Certificates of Estoppel occurs when the lease specifically limits what the tenant may be asked to certify, but the landlord (or a creditor of the landlord) asks the tenant to certify something outside of the specific scope defined in the lease.  This frequently occurs when a bank  or other lender has taken over possession of a property, and seeks to rewrite certain lease terms.  I no longer think that these occurrences are accidental.  I’ve spent too much time talking to representatives of banks or other lenders who clearly have a copy of the lease in front of them, and yet they ask, or more often demand, that the tenant certify something outside of the scope limited by the lease, or that otherwise is different than what the lease requires.

Finally, insurance clauses, in concert with indemnity and hold harmless provisions, require specific diligence in review. Many commercial transactions involve burden shifting, and the party with more bargaining power will shift as much liability or potential liability as they can to the party with less power.  This isn’t unusual, and I expect that, but every now and again, I get a lease where someone has gone overboard, and requires the tenant to accept certain liabilities which may or may not cause them to violate provisions of their insurance policies, or even void their insurance policies, which would leave the tenant legally liable and without any recourse against their own insurers for any recovery or contribution.   This is a problem when it involves a small business that doesn’t expect to make a lot of money,because they will often have NO bargaining power to change this, and don’t want to spend any money to even properly understand what it means for them.  But when I’m dealing with larger companies, I will sometimes arrange to sit down with the client and their insurance agent to discuss the specific wording of these clauses, and let the client hear directly from their own agent why the wording of these clauses will create problems with their coverage if it is not changed, and we will make detailed counter-proposals for alternate clauses which won’t leave them bare in the face of potential liability.

These kinds of pitfalls are why if you are looking at signing a commercial lease, it makes sense to hire an lawyer with my particular brand of weirdness to spend a few hours reviewing the lease, and then going through it with you.  Yes, it requires an outlay of capital, but it doesn’t cost as much as voiding your insurance coverage or rewriting a lease to the benefit of your landlord’s creditors.

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Filed under Business Law, Contracts and Agreements, Uncategorized

The Three Biggest Obstacles To Completing An Estate Plan

Although everyone should have an estate plan, I am constantly amazed at how many people procrastinate about following through with this key responsibility.  When I was new to the practice of law, it was much easier for me to look at the planning that many people fail to do, and dismiss it as irresponsibility and selfishness, but nearly a decade and a half of practicing law has softened my perspective, and I have an empathy for people who haven’t yet executed documents that will make life easier for those they leave behind when they pass away.  This is due in large part to some of the things I have had clients tell me when they have come in to start the process.  There are many different reasons why estate planning is not a high priority for a lot of people, but they generally fall into one of three categories:  The fear of confronting one’s own mortality, fear about the cost, and struggles with family conflicts and/or a desire to be “fair” with all of the children.

The Fear of Confronting One’s Own Mortality

After witnessing how this obstacle affects people, I am convinced that for many of them, it is an unconscious and reflexive reaction.  The last thing that most twenty- or thirty-somethings want to think about is the idea that they could be dead tomorrow.  This may be because of busy lives, with jobs, and kids, and obligations, and hobbies.  It might be because they are still young, and healthy, or believe themselves to be healthy, and for many people, that patina of the invincibility of youth might not lose its luster until middle-age, and its aches and pains that don’t go away, or the sudden loss of former classmates and peers injecting the inevitability of death into the forefront of their thinking.  After talking with several long-time life insurance salespeople I know, I tend to believe that there is something to this perspective.

When middle-age comes, some react by retreating farther from the idea of estate planning, and always seem to find reasons to procrastinate and not make decisions, sometimes to the consternation of their spouse, who may have a newfound desire to address these issues, if only to find a measure of peace in knowing that there is a plan, and with it, the comfort of knowing that they will not be at the mercy of statutory schemes which might not reflect the promises and expectations underlying their relationship.

Others surrender to the knowledge that life always ends, and that sometimes, it is sudden, and unexpected.  I have observed that these people are often motivated a maturity and a deep enough love for their families to want to make that time as easy as possible, and perhaps also to leave a legacy for the future.

Fear About The Cost

As a now middle-aged person with two kids of my own, I understand the reluctance to agree to have an attorney sit down and prepare a set of documents at a cost of hundreds of dollars an hour with apparently no cap the eventual cost.  One of the wonderful contradictions about estate planning is that while every time I draft someone’s documents, those documents are unique, because they are tailored to their situation and their desired outcome.  But. in most cases, I also know exactly how much it should cost, because the means of getting there is often substantially similar to others I have drafted.  Still, it doesn’t really matter how you explain this to a client, because they understand that they might have the one set of documents that takes longer, and if you quoted a range, their memory will always gravitate toward the low end.  Recently, after years of consideration, I made the decision to offer flat fee estate planning documents for “simple” estates…a circumstance that I discuss thoroughly with clients after reviewing their particulars, because sometimes they believe their estates to be “simple”, when they really aren’t.  The fact is, after considering it, the fee structure works out to what the client probably could have expected to pay for me to prepare the documents on an hourly basis, but I also understand how the certainty of knowing exactly what they are going to pay can be a selling point.  Every now and then, I will get someone who believes that the cost for preparing “simple” or modest estate plans is still too much.  This is an objection that I understand, and it is why I often try to put it in perspective.  I recently had a brake job done on my car.  It was something that needed to be done, and I did it because it had a tangible benefit not only for myself, but for my wife and children.  Getting your estate planning done is something that you would do for the same reasons, and the cost was actually pretty close to being the same.

For people who have more complex estates, the costs will be greater, and flat fees aren’t necessarily an option.  But there is usually more at stake, and not planning accordingly can mean paying taxes that might have otherwise been avoided (and the need to sell assets in order to pay those taxes), and an end result that wasn’t what anyone wanted, along with the insult of greater than average probate costs incurred in the injury of that conclusion.  In these situations, I generally find that the clients understand that the cost is a legitimate expense of getting their affairs managed properly.

Struggles With Family Conflicts and/or A Desire To Be “Fair” With All of the Children

This is the obstacle that I have the most empathy for, probably because I have children of my own, and until I did, I couldn’t really understand the old saying “You love all your children equally, but you love each one of them differently.”  I have spent countless hours with parents who struggle with sussing out how to be fair with each child, while being keenly aware of the strengths and weaknesses of each.  This is a dilemma made more difficult for parents who own businesses, because often, there may be one of more of the children who have no interest in the business, but that is where the bulk of the wealth of the family is centered, and one or more of the children have an active interest and role in the day-to-day operations of the business.  These are situations which require the attorney to present several options to the parents, and to help the evaluate each one before deciding on one.

Sometimes, I see parents struggling with how a child is living their life.  It might be an issue with the child being a spendthrift.  It might be that the parents deeply disapprove of the child’s spouse.  It might be a history of conflict with the child, that may or may not include some violent episodes.  It might be alcoholism or drug use.  It might be the child’s sexual orientation.  Any one of these can cause a great deal of anguish for parents who are struggling to finalize estate plans.  I’ve heard the pain in a parent’s voice when they describe the reason why they are struggling with trying to treat a child equally with the rest of their children.  Sometimes, I can help them feel a little better about that burden, by offering an option whereby a more responsible sibling can be made trustee of the spendthrift’s share, or through the creation of a testamentary trust which will keep the addicted child from receiving a lump sum which will be lost in a binge which may also take their child’s life.  I have shared the agony of parents who have disinherited children because of conflicts or irreconcilable differences, which the parties have been unable or unwilling to resolve.  And I have come to understand that even for the ones who don’t appear to have struggled at all with such a decision carry the weight of that decision as a private wound.

One of the many lessons I have learned in years of practice is that everyone should have an estate plan, not only to deal with their own death, but to make sure that someone they trust has the ability to make medical and financial decisions on their behalf if they become temporarily or permanently disabled.  The nature of any of the contingencies that a decent estate plan would address are usually the kind for which people can find reasons to procrastinate, but if deciding for yourself isn’t reason enough to take care of this important task, providing the peace of mind of an actual plan for your loved ones should be.

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Filed under Empathy, It Ain't Perry Mason, Pieces of the puzzle, Planning, Trusts, Wills

Initiative 594’s Inheritance Trap

I-594 isn’t just a compounding of previous violations of the Second Amendment, it is also fraught with traps for the unwary, including one for those who inherit pistols. The language in question is as follows: (4) This section does not apply to: (g) A person who (i) acquired a firearm other than a pistol by the operation of law upon the death of the former owner of the firearm of (ii) acquired a pistol by operation by operation of law upon the death of the former owner of the pistol within the preceding sixty-day period, the person must either have lawfully transferred the pistol or must have contacted the department of licensing to notify the department that he or she has possession of the pistol and intends to retain possession of the pistol in compliance with all federal and state laws. This means that as part of the probate process, the Personal Representative/Administrator of the estate and the attorney need to determine as soon as possible if the deceased owned pistols.  If no one checks, and the designee or heir takes possession without following these steps, then they have broken the law…even if it is the spouse of the deceased.  What can make an error a travesty is that the transfer or notification to the Department of Licensing must take place for every pistol that is acquired, meaning that if someone inherits more than one pistol, and doesn’t follow these steps, they may now be convicted of a misdemeanor for the first pistol, and a felony for each subsequent one. As a practical matter, if you are actually planning ahead, and you want to leave your pistols to someone, you should probably discuss this requirement with the intended recipient, and put language in your Will requiring your Personal Representative to make sure that these steps are followed, and to name a backup recipient if your first choice cannot pass a background check, or has had their concealed weapons permit revoked.

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Filed under Pieces of the puzzle, Planning, Probates and Estates, The Practice

The Newest Estate Planning Tool for Washington Attorneys: The Transfer on Death Deed

On June 12, 2014, Washington joined a growing number of states which now allow residents to transfer title to real estate by means of a “transfer on death” deed.  This deed allows the owner of a piece of real estate to execute and record a deed which will transfer title to the named beneficiary upon the owner’s death without having to transfer title after the owner’s death as part of a probate of the owner’s estate, much in the same way an owner of a bank account or brokerage account can execute a document naming a person or persons to be a beneficiary of the account so that title passes to the designated beneficiary upon death, making it unnecessary to probate such an account.

Like any such change in the law, this presents a number of new opportunities, and new potential pitfalls for the unaware and those who are unsophisticated about estate planning.   Nevertheless, for those with truly modest estates that do not meet Washington State or Federal Estate Tax thresholds, the new law is a tool that could help such property owners avoid a probate if they so desired, and I suspect that careful and considered use of these deeds might indeed reduce the number of probates that we as practitioners currently conduct essentially only for the purpose of transferring the title to the real estate of the deceased.  These deeds could also provide an additional means to make gifts from an estate as part of an integrated estate plan, but I cannot caution an owner of real estate enough about the need to consult with an attorney before making such a transfer, because doing so would reduce the number of assets available to pay estate taxes, which could become especially problematic in large taxable estates where other resources may also be turned into non-probate assets by means of payable on death beneficiary designations.

Using these deeds without proper planning and understanding of consequences may also create unintended consequences for those who are married or who are registered domestic partners due to the operation of community property law.  However, this may permit people to make gifts while they are alive, without triggering the need to file an informational federal gift tax return.

Another issue is the fact that there are potential situations that could involve this law in which the outcome is not necessarily clear.  One commenter has already observed that there is apparently no limitation on time in which DSHS could place a lien against the deeded property for services rendered to the deceased, and in the absence of a clear limitation on the time in which to do so in the statute, it would appear that DSHS will then have up to twenty-four months from the date of death to place a lien, which would lead the careful lawyer to advise the owner wishing to use this method of transfer that the beneficiary should not consider the gift to be “free and clear” until this two year window had passed.

I am excited that we have another option available in our estate planning tool kit.  I also see the potential for people to really screw up their estates if they don’t get help in reviewing the plan beforehand.  It will also change how we do probates, as we will have to clearly understand whether or not the real estate is a non-probate asset, or an asset of the estate.

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Filed under Planning, Probates and Estates, Real Estate, Transfer on Death Deeds